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Ketu or Queto – Yoruba language, known as Iorubá or Nagô in Portuguese. Nagô derives from ànàgó, a derogatory term used by the Dahomey people to refer to Yoruba-speaking people, specifically of Oyo heritage, many of whom were sold as slaves to Brazil.
Efã and Ijexá in Bahia
Nagô or Eba in Pernambuco
Oió-ijexá or Batuque-de-Nação in Rio Grande do Sul
Mina-nagô or Tambor-de-Mina in Maranhão
Xambá in Alagoas and Pernambuco (nearly extinct).
Bantu – mix of Bantu (Kikongo and Kimbundo) languages
Caboclo (half Indigenous American and European)
Jeje – Fon, and Gen languages (Jeje)
Mina Jeje in Maranhão
Babaçuê in Pará
Fun Fún in Panamá
Candomblé is a polytheistic religion and worships a number of gods:
the orishas of the Yoruba (Ketu nation), spelled Orixás in Portuguese;
the voduns of the Fon and Ewe (Jeje nation); and
the nkisis (minkisi) of the Kongo (Bantu nation).
Orishas worshiped in the Batuque are mostly twelve, Bara, Ogun, Iansa, Xango, Odé, Otim, Ossanhe, Oba, Xapanã, Oshun, Yemanja and Oxalá.
List of Yoruba deities
The Supreme God has three manifestations:
Eledumare - the Supreme Creator.
Ọlọ́run - the ruler of the Heavens.
Olofi - the conduit between Orún (Heaven) and Ayé (Earth)
Metaphysical Personifications or Spirits
Orunmila - spirit of wisdom, divination, destiny, and foresight
Ori - personification of one's spiritual intuition and destiny
Male Àwọn Òrìṣà (Orishas)
Aganjú - Orisha of volcanoes, the wilderness and rivers
Babalú Ayé - Orisha of the Earth and strongly associated with infectious disease and healing
Erinlẹ̀ - Orisha of medicine, healing, and comfort, physician to the gods
Èṣù - trickster, psychopomp and Orisha of crossroads, duality, beginnings, travelers, fertility and death
Ibeji - twin Orisha of vitality and youth
Kokou - a violent warrior Orisha
Ọbàtálá - creator of human bodies; Orisha of light, spiritual purity, and moral uprightness
Oduduwa - Orisha of Humans
Ògún - Orisha who presides over iron, fire, hunting, politics and war
Oko - Orisha of agriculture
Osanyin - Orisha of the forest
Oṣùmàrè - divine rainbow serpent associated with creation and procreation
Ọ̀ṣọ́ọ̀sì - Orisha of the hunt and forest
Ṣàngó, also Shango - Orisha of thunder and lightning
Sopona - Orisha of smallpox, also known as Babalu Aye
Female Àwọn Òrìṣà (Orishas)
Aja - Orisha of the forest, the animals within it, and herbal healing
Aje - Orisha of wealth
Ayao - Orisha of air
Egungun-oya - Orisha of divination
Mawu - creator goddess, associated with the sun and moon
Nana Buluku - androgynous Supreme Creator
Ọbà - first wife of Shango and Orisha of domesticity and marriage
Olókun - patron Orisha of the descendants of Africans who were carried away during the Atlantic Slave Trade or Middle Passage
Ọ̀ṣun - Orisha who presides over love, intimacy, beauty, wealth and diplomacy
Ọya - Orisha of the Niger River; associated with wind, lightning, fertility, fire, and magic
Yemọja - a mother goddess; patron deity of women, and the Ogun river
In the period of slavery, came together with the slaves in the holds of Nigeria ships and Benin, the main roots of african-Brazilian cults, Candomble of Bahia, Pernambuco Shango, the barrel of Maranhao Mine and Rio Batuque Grande do Sul. There are here several houses Batuque who follow the precepts of a particular nation (Oyo, Jeje, Ijexá, Cabinda, Nagô ...), but the revered Orishas are the same in almost all the yards, the settlements have rituals and prayers very much alike, and basically the differences between nations are respect for own traditions of each ancestral roots and their religious and cultural background passed by their background, as your worship is lived and transmitted orally in the experiences of its members. Each person has three Orishas protectors, head, body and feet, and all have the Orisha Bara feet, just changing its quality. In the act of the head, the person devotes all his life to the care the Orisha in the same protection switch. To know what are the Orishas governing certain person, it must be made a shell game. Orishas worshiped in the Batuque are mostly twelve, Bara, Ogun, Iansa, Xango, Odé, Otim, Ossanhe, Oba, Xapanã, Oshun, Yemanja and Oxalá. The cult of Ibejis varies according to the nation, and in some are associated and considered as Shango and Oshun qualities. Usually Batuque begins midnight and extends until six or seven o'clock in the morning, this is also an influence of the slaves, as the black at the time of slavery could do their rituals only after completed their work for their masters or expect them to go to sleep. It is not customary to use paramentas in Batuque, usually women wear skirts and smock and men a very large type of breeches and a kafta, in addition to the guides. The obligations Batuque consist of divided phases: the will, the drumming party and levantação. The first week takes place the softeners, the bori and drumming party. In the second week it is done will be four feet and finally is carried out at Batuque party with the table Ibeji. On this day, markets are distributed (trays containing all types of cuisine of the Orishas) meaning the division of wealth and prosperity with partygoers. Finalizing this first ritual phase, the termination is carried out with the fish must. On Monday it made the presentation of the city started the ride. Early in the morning to go to the market, the beach, and finally have the breakfast which is taken into the house of an older brother or religion in the house of another Babalorixá. The Babalorixá has the responsibility of forming new priests, who will continue the rituals. For this we need to prepare young children saint, passing them all the secrets related to rituals, such as the use of leaves, execution of works and offerings, interpretation of shell game and even how to start and prepare a future priest. Learning time is long, since the teachings are made orally, and the best way to learn is with dedication and live as much time in the yard. Our guard tradition axé (force) of each Orisha in a Okuta (stone) that is placed in a container along with other "tools", which are in the custody of Babalorixá or Yalorixá; but the force majeure is loose in nature, only part of it, symbolically is in Okuta. In ceremonies to summon the Orishas is traditionally done through songs accompanied by the ringing of drums, with rhythms identified for each deity. The ceremonies are different, are offered gifts, different foods to each and sacrifices involving animals with four feet and birds; taking the part of the Orishas all flesh is consumed by participants and community members. The orishas pray-protection, health, peace, end, specific requests to the needs of each one in particular. A path that makes us have contact with orishas is through occupation; this is the process by which the deity manifests itself in your child (a) that went through the various initiation rites. However there are cases of occupation uninitiated. a person You can be watching a ritual for the first time and identify with the energetic spiritual forces regarding their Orisha, and have this spontaneous demonstration. Mostly, the manifestation of the Orishas happens on feast days. In drumming on these occasions, we can talk; ask for help, seek, embrace and be embraced by them; end can have a direct contact with them. One of Batuque features is the fact that the initiate can not know, in any way, which was owned by his Orisha, otherwise go crazy. In fact the question is not the problem of madness as a result, but the fact that the knowledge that is concerned, one can give extreme vanity and thus trivialize a basic principle of the Orishas, which is in humility and detachment material. The new Orisha does not have the right to speak, only have it when by decision of Babalorixá, to go through a closed ritual that will give you the right of speech. When the Orisha want to go up (go), a quick ritual so that it is dispatched it is made, with the Orisha stay "axêre" which is intermediate between the Orisha and the state of human consciousness. At this time the person acts under manifestation of the Orisha, but as a child, talking and acting childish (at the moment all the Orishas have the right to speak), eating candy, drinking sodas and making jokes. After the required period, the axêre lies on the shoulder of a nearby child and enters a deep sleep to wake up soon after as a shock.
Softeners or Miero
It is the first duty of initiation. After play and confirmed in whelks head and son of passages is made softeners, which is a ritual performed with specific herbs each Orisha, macerated in water where the Babalorixá lava son's head will make the obligation, while taking -if the ERI, ie the recitation of Babalorixá.
The Aribibó is the obligation undertaken with a couple of pigeons belonging to the Orisha. This obligation is not made any settlement, as it is a reinforcement or even a health ax.
Bori of birds
The poultry Bori is the obligation that the son-of-saint reaffirms its belief in the religion. It is done as a preparation for readying, or as a "head reinforcement", which aims to improve the general conditions of the son-of-saint. In bori obligation roosters are euthanized or color of chickens belonging to the head Orisha and Orisha the governing body of the person. Some are consecrated objects together are also called bori: a glass or porcelain butter dish, an old coin, some whelks (according to the number of axé the Orisha) and quartinha (a kind of clay pot with lid). These objects are placed in a container along with the guides and receive blood (axorô) of the sacrificed animals, this canister that is in the child's lap being Borido, while it's sitting on the floor.The Babalorixá makes the markings on son's body in the same way that was done in aribibó, with the difference being sacrificed in addition to pigeons, roosters or chickens, according to the Orisha owner the head of the son-of-saint. In continuation of the bori obligation to retain the same steps of aribibó but the bori there is a witness who called the godfather or godmother head, must be full respect for the sponsor, which should be someone with making, child-de- holy ready, it is the sponsor who must be sought if the godson need guidance and Babalorixá is unable to assist the son-of-saint. Incarceration saint's son being Borido varies 03-04 days on average. During this period Borido reduces the maximum activities and movements, staying most of the time lying on the ground. After the drumbeats and the end of the confinement period arises the obligation and mounts it bori: It is a cotton bed in the butter dish and put the currency at the center surrounded by shells. Copper is well honey. The Bori is considered the "brain" of the individual, so requires some care, should not be moved, the quartinha should always be with water and should be strengthened from time to time with new obligation. This obligation the child close his relationship with the Orisha, and for some, the primary obligation of Batuque where the son-of-saint close its relationship with the Orisha, thus becoming a son of Religion.
Bori Part Four Feet
It is considered as preparation for readying, i.e. prior to the Bori Four feet. This obligation is made for children who may have already done bori birds and also be made as reinforcement for the children who are already ready. It sacrificed a couple of chickens d'Angola is the son-of-saint belongs to a front Orisha, teals couple is the son-in-holy belong to the Oshun or Oxalá or so, a couple of ducks is the son of Yemanja . The making of a Bori medium Four-feet, will depend on the need and / or requirement of your Orisha.
Bori Four Feet
Regarded as ready head, especially when next to Bori is the Orisha of the laying head of the son-of-saint. Occasion where not only enshrines the Bori, but also the mystical objects: tools and ocutá which will set the Orisha and delegum guide, guide with several wires accounts that vary in number and color according to the ax of the Orisha. one four-legged animal in accordance with the individual Orisha is sacrificed. From this obligation, increase the responsibilities of child-de-santo. The detention period varies from 06 to 20 days or more.
the readying corresponds to the official and definitive establishment of the link between start and Orisha. However , this bond must be renewed from time to time, because the act of putting axorô head implies the idea of feeding the Orisha and strengthen your child. The readying always is obliged to call the killing and the main step is readying cutting of animals offered to each of the Orishas to be seated on the canister containing the objects to be consecrated.
Are sacrificed to the Orishas live fish in the morning early, and only after the obligations of four feet are raised. The fish varies according to the Orixá receiving the obligation, and its amount varies in accordance with the same number of ax. The front Orishas get painted as an obligation and the beach Orishas receive jundiá. In Room-of-saint are immolated at least one fish for each Orisha and it is intended: the head, fins, tail and some axorô (blood). The meat of the sacrificed fish is served with fish sauce (ebó) at lunch and must be consumed by children who are obligations and those who are in the house, because the fish ebó symbolizes abundance and prosperity. A larger amount of fish is prepared fried to be served to the people who attend the drumbeats closing or Tap Fish - touch performed on the night of the fish cut, but with shorter life will be consumed ebó fish and fried fish, besides the food of the Orishas.
Axés of Obé and Ifa (Knives and Buzios)
The son-of-saint is honored with the Axés of Obé and Ifa, when Babalorixá or Yalorixá realize development, commitment and the child deserving to its obligations and commitment to their Orishas and on the grounds of religion. It means the Babalorixá has extreme confidence in the son who will receive the Axés, both in relation to their knowledge, as to his character and honesty, it is through the Ifa that helps those who need guidance and the Obé carry out the cuts for orishas. The delivery of these Axés occurs in termination Batuque, usually on the Saturday following the Batuque Grande. When delivered the Axés, the objects that make up the Ifa game and knives should be placed on a tray decorated with flowers and leaves and will make the delivery ritual. The sponsor will hold a lighted candle witnessing the obligation. Since then the son-of-saint is considered ready, that is has its full obligation to the settlement of all the Orishas and Axés of obé and Ifá. Now it depends on their development and ability and with the consent of his Orisha-to-head and his Babalorixá may have its own Ilê.
The Feast of Batuque
After the obligations fulfilled and closed the levantação, the party will be played, the Batuque. The Babalorixá, kneeling in front of the holy room, along with all their children and other guests, play the Adja, making the call of all the Orishas of Bara Oxalá your specific greetings, asking each Orisha things that they compete . After the call, the Babalorixá authorizes tamboreiro to get the touch, which will run in order to Bara Oxalá. All who are in the wheel dance with the characteristics of each Orisha which is being played to pray.
Within the party there are specific rituals that we call the "Axe":
Axe of scale or Wheel Ready
If the obligation that originated the party had cut four feet shall be held within the prayers to Xango, the obligation of balance or Cassum in honor of Shango and also contain the ax of all Orishas in balance. There is a break in the wheel drive and gifts, including the Orishas away from the center of the room, leaving room for wheel balance. In this ritual involved only ready placed side by side, forming a circle holding hands, dancing to the beat of the drum that is gradually increasing in intensity. It is greater when the number of jobs simultaneously occurs. When finished Rocks Orishas meet the foundation: go to Room-of-saint, then to the front door to greet the Orishas of the street and then dance to the Alujá Xango and Alujá of Iansa, Eris intended solely for Orishas facing. There is a belief that the balance can not be opened, that is, people should remain hand in hand until you start Alujá, under penalty of death to a son of the house. But if there is any threat to break the balance, it is up to Alabe immediately change the axé going straight for the implementation of Alujá Xango. Because of this belief, many people shy away from taking part in the balance, but it is a very strong obligation and the ax that comes in the hall during the balance is something felt by all present.
Alujá Xango and Alujá Iansã
After the balance, the Orishas that are in the world dancing Alujá of Shango and Iansa, respectively. Are rhythms of the drum, characteristic of these Orishas. During Alujá is contagious axé and the excitement with which the orishas dance, providing a moment of rare beauty.
The Aforiba or ATA Dance
The aforiba is the time that Ogun and Iansã demonstrate the passage in which Iansã drunk to get away with Ogun Shango. The Babalorixá invite a Ogun and Iansã to do the Aforiba, so he puts in the center of the hall two bottles containing ATA (aforiba) and weapons belonging to these Orishas (swords). Iansa takes the bottles and offers Ogun will soon get drunk, but then Ogun back to you and goes after Iansã wielding his sword. The two fight, but Iansã can calm Ogun and the two-reconciled and come to dance together. Having a Xango in the world can become part of Aforiba. Shango comes in defense of Iansa and its double-edged ax enters the fight with Ogun. By then, Iansa calms the two Orishas.
Completed the Eris Xapanã's time eco output, which is nothing more than the order of the ax of Bara, and Eco Bara LANA and Bara lode (bowl with water, manioc flour and drops epô) and Eco Oshun (glass containers with corn flour, water, honey and scent and flowers) that serve as magnets of negative energies. The output of the ECO symbolizes the departure of all the negativity that exists in the environment and the people present. Prepare the environment for ERIS older Orishas, which has a softer touch. While out the echo, the Alabes continue pulling the NIEs, but now pull the ERIS of street Orishas - Bara Lod, Ogun Avagã and Iansã Timboá - no wheel movement and assistance avoids looking at what's going on , turning to the wall. Says the belief that those who look at the output of the ECO draws to itself the negativity contained therein.
In Batuque Four-feet there is Ibejis wheel in Jee-Ijexá it happens during the Eris Oshun. It is the time when children participate in the obligation and women who wish to maternity or who are pregnant make their requests and thanks. Orishas, mainly Oshun and Shango, distributed to those on the wheel and assistance, fruits and sweets that are on the Room-of-saint.
Axe of Perfumes
Being Oshun goddess of beauty loves perfumes, mirrors in their ERIS there is a special moment in the Oxuns that are in the world receive glasses perfumes, fans and mirrors. Happy dance, brandishing their fans and mirrors while others bathe with perfume and distribute a fragrant axé people who are on the wheel and assistance. This ax is a reference to the passage in which Oshun is on a river bathing in a ritual of beauty and enchantment.
Axés of gifts
usually happens near the end of Batuque, the Orishas who are aniversariando present their cakes as you are greeted by those present. After the cakes are served to the guests and the surplus is distributed along with the markets. Are also usual, the guests present an offer to the Orisha Babalorixá or Yalorixá on the occasion of his birthday readying. The most common gifts are flowers, perfumes, sweets, utensils that can be used in day to day Ilê ...
Axé O Allah If only
belongs to the ERIS May the ax of Allah. At one point, the saint of children with higher stature to suspend high a great white Allah. While the wheel and Eris continue, all they pass below the asking Allah to white Orisha peace and protection.
As Batuque is happening, Orishas arrive and the "rise" go away. The deities are dispatched, usually by children of Ilê the oldest and most experienced saint, but they are in "axêre" or "axêro" intermediate state between the occupation of the Orisha and the person itself. The axêres act like children, take soda and love to play with people because their language is confusing and they exchange expressions enough. It is a time of relaxation, but should be kept about because despite making jokes, the axêres still retain the essence of the Orisha.
Ibeji table is made in Closing Batuque and on the occasions when the Babalorixá or Yalorixá deem necessary. It is held in the early evening and precedes the Batuque Closing. It is comprised of children from birth to twelve years, as well as pregnant women or who wish to become pregnant. They are sung Eris Bara, Shango and Oshun (representing the Ibeji) and old Orishas. The Ibeji table is very rich detail and is a religious obligation with great ax and beauty. Means please and honor the Orishas of children symbolizing purity, peace and prosperity. A large white towel is placed on the ground and it put up fruits, Amala, flowers, one quartinha, toys, cake, candy and soda. The children sit around the towel, the smallest accompanied by an adult. Are served to children: first chicken soup, after the candy and soda. After they had eaten what was served, they are given to children a spoonful of honey and a sip of water. Then washed and wiped away the hands of children. Completed these steps children are raised table by adults or by Orishas that have arrived and conducted to form a wheel to sound Eris Shango. Closed the Bureau, the Orishas who arrived collect the items still left on the table and lead to the holy room. Toys are distributed among the children who participated.
is the touch closing the public activities of the great drumming. It has a ratio slightly lower than the first touch, it is preceded by cutting the fish and cut confirmation, when only immolated birds to Orishas. The color of Axós is preferably white and can happen Ibedji table before the touch. It is tonight that will be given the Axés of OBEs and Ifa. Followed by touch, the day after there is levantação of court confirmation must.
Levantação of the Obligation
After the period in which the obligation should be lowered, there is levantação, a term that refers to the act of raising the vessels containing the cutting obligations that were furled, clean them and keep them on the shelves inside the room holy. Keeping a custom from the slaves of time, the obligations are saved and hidden by curtains that usually has its front candles, candlesticks, holy food, flowers and other sacred objects belonging to the Orishas.
The termination of the obligation to the holy of children who are in seclusion is the tour the day after the Levantação. In the morning, Babalorixá or Yalorixá takes them to the front door of Ilê and forward them to the street (to the Orishas Street), releasing them to leave out of Ilê boundaries. Go to the center to visit places of great significance: the church, the public market (where they buy cereals, grains, and candles) and the Guaiba River. Then will visit some known Ilê which hit head greeting the Orishas Ilê and there lay of the purchases made in the market. Back to Ilê, hit his head in the holy room and arriam the rest of the purchases made. Greet Babalorixá or Yalorixá the new holy sonship.
the fortnights are smaller obligations that usually last two or three days where the killing and the touch is made. It is frequented by a not very large number of people and are usually associated with some commemorative date or bori obligation Ilê saint of children. There is a touch of prayers, the holy foods are offered to Orishas and traditional foods served to the people, soup, white and yellow hominy, Amala. Being a smaller obligation, requires a minimum of birds to be culled. The meat of poultry is consumed in the drum touch intervals served enfarofada or soup, food traditionally offered to people who attend the ebó. There are still "dry fortnights" when there is no sacrifice of animals.
Babalorixá in Candomblé
Not every person started will be a priest with open house, as this will be determined by your Orisha obliged to seven years (Oduijé) when receive the security and independence of their rights babalorixá. In the case of the Orisha not want an open house at the time of delivery of the rights he put it at the feet of his babalorixá and the person will not need to open a house and can stay in the house where he started as egbomi .
In his priestly function, babalorixá makes queries to the Orishas through the shell game , since, in Brazil , there is the habit of consulting babalaô , supreme head of the game Ifa .This is due to the absence of the same figure in the african-Brazilian tradition, since the death of the Bonfim Martiniano , according to the oldest occurred around 1943 . Since then, the teacher Agenor Miranda was called to choose the holy mother of the great terreiros Bahia , but now, with technological advances and the voluntary immigration of Africans to Brazil, you hear talk of new babalaos in the Brazilian tradition, hence the need to differentiate Ifá of merindelogun and shell game.
In its administrative function, it is largely responsible for everything that happens in the house: the amount of holy children of the people to be served etc. In it, nobody does anything without their prior authorization. It enlists the help of many people to the administration of the same, each with a specific function in the hierarchy , although all ancillary know everything to meet any eventuality.
In smaller houses Candomblé , the babalorixá, besides the priestly, accumulates several other functions, should be knowledgeable of the sacred leaves , their secrets and applications liturgical ; in the event of rituals linked to egunguns , or specialize, or consult a Oje when needed. When the house does not have a ogã confirmed, he makes sacrifices ; when the house does not have Alabe , usually babalorixá invites Alabes houses sisters to play Candomblé; in the absence of iabassê or equede , he makes the food of the orishas, sewing clothes of iaô , does the shopping and other tasks from day to day.
Candomblé can be considered a Brazilian religion that originates in diverse mythic-religious systems of African origin. In this perspective, at the same time corresponds to a ethnomedical system or "traditional medicine of African matrix" that has been maintained (and recently reconstructed from the demands for the revival of traditional medicines ) from its origin in cultures Yoruba , Bantu , among others. The function of babalorixá in this case gets special emphasis on its relationship with Babalú-Ayé or with this practice of harvesting the sacred leaves assigned, according to Roger Bastide , the babalosaim dedicated to the worship of Osanyin .
released December 23, 2016
Black Classical gives thanks to the ultimate supreme being that is PeteOTC and the otherworldly humans associated with OTC Astral Spaceways that includes you Emanative.
To my friends no particular order who help me in amazing ways: OrsiI + Jazzman Gerald, Dave Sector12 + Neil, Matt Scraw, Dobie, Luís Barata da Rocha, LDLDN, Ben Morris, Adam Scrimshire, Mr Beatnick, Romaine RZ, Broke Grove Elelta + Gav + Baby, Guinness + Andrea, Matt + Owen SIR, Roods, Scott SE, Paul 'Power' Sherlock, Fergus NTS Harmony Holiday, Rob Northern Comfort, Trev Whateva, Dave Lee, Ash Katonah, Mike OIR, El Reza, Arkadin, Cheeba, JAZZ Neeko, El Goog JA, Rich Hosey, Wrongtom and last but of all Nyree Hood. Bless you all, Im lucky to know y'all!
Dedicated to Nick Monohub my bro, Colin Curtis and Hewan Clarke who taught me more than they will ever know.